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Children of all ages are waiting to be adopted. The Bureau of Permanency Services welcomes responsible, caring adults who are ready to share their time, their hearts, and their lives with our waiting children. When you adopt a waiting child, you will be giving that child a permanent family and another chance in life. All children deserve a loving, committed, safe, and permanent family.

We encourage you to use our website to learn more about the process of adoption in New York State. We trust you will find it an informative and useful guide as you make this most important decision to parent a child. Below, you will find questions about the different types of adoption in New York State. The primary focus of OCFS is the adoption of children from foster care, but there are other adoption processes such as adopting a child who is not in foster care or adopting internationally.

Adoption is a process that creates a binding, legal relationship between parent and child. It is strongly recommended you consult with an adoption attorney while navigating any formal legal process, including adoption.

Video: A Child is Waiting

Please note that the following information is general guidance and does not contain formal legal advice.

What are the different types of adoption?

In New York State, there are two types of adoptions with different procedures: private placement and agency adoptions.

Note: Adoption laws vary from state to state. This guidance addresses New Yorkers seeking to adopt a child in New York or the placement of a child for adoption by either a local department of social services (LDSS) (for children in foster care) or a New York-approved voluntary authorized adoption agency (VA) (for a child who may or may not be in foster care).

Private placement adoptions are where the child has not been placed for adoption by a LDSS or a VA (so, the child being adopted is not in foster care). The placements are arranged between the birth parent(s) and the adoptive parent(s). There are pre-placement certification requirements for the adoptive parent(s). Except for involvement of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children, the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) does not oversee private adoptions.

Agency adoptions refer to adoptions of children who are placed through either a LDSS or a VA. The agency investigates through the home study process, approves the potential adoptive parent(s), and makes the decision whether the placement of a particular child or children in the home of the approved adoptive parent(s) is in the best interests of the child(ren). The adoptive parent(s) are then able to proceed with completion of the adoption in court.

See the New York State Domestic Relations law regarding adoptions from an authorized agency and private placement adoptions.

What are my rights? What should I expect from an attorney?

As previously mentioned, it is strongly recommended that you consult with an attorney while navigating the adoption process.

The OCFS publication, What to Expect From an Adoption Attorney: A Guide for Prospective Adoptive Parents in New York State, contains information about how to hire an adoption attorney and about your rights, which include the right:

What is my lawyer’s role in an adoption?

The Unified Court System publication, The Lawyer’s Guide to Adoption, contains detailed information about the role that attorneys have in helping you adopt a child. Pages 19-22 are particularly helpful.

The Unified court system provides adoption forms for both private placement and agency adoptions and checklists for private placement and agency adoptions for families completing petitions to adopt.

How do I choose an adoption agency?

Choosing an agency is a very important step. Talk to different agencies and adoptive parents or parent support groups to learn how the agencies work with prospective adoptive parents and to compare your options. Keep in mind that it is very difficult to change agencies once the adoption process has begun. Before you sign any contract with an adoption agency it is recommended that you ask an attorney to review the contract.

Will I have to undergo a background check?

Every effort is made to place children in safe environments. When families apply to adopt, agencies must:

What is the home study process?

A home study is a series of meetings, interviews, and training sessions involving the agency and the prospective adoptive family. Under most circumstances, New York State regulations require agencies to complete a home study within about four months of the family submitting an adoption application.

The following is meant to help you prepare for the home study. Please note that a home study for a private placement adoption may vary from these requirements.

As part of the agency adoption study process, LDSS or VA must explore the following characteristics of applicants:

Additional factors explored within the adoption study process include an applicant’s:

Certain factors may not be used to deny an application for approval:

How do I adopt a child from another state?

The Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC) is an agreement among all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands that establishes procedures for the placement of children across state lines. The child’s originating state and receiving state must approve the child’s movement before the child can legally move. OCFS administers the ICPC in New York State.

Learn more about the ICPC.

How do I adopt a child from another country?

Local District of Social Services do not place children from other countries. A list of New York State-approved voluntary authorized adoption agencies that handle foreign adoptions can be found on the OCFS website list of authorized agencies.

Learn more about inter-country adoption from the U.S. Department of State.